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A planet's defining physical characteristic is that it is massive enough for the force of its own gravity to dominate over the electromagnetic forces binding its physical structure, leading to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium.
This effectively means that all planets are spherical or spheroidal. Up to a certain mass, an object can be irregular in shape, but beyond that point, which varies depending on the chemical makeup of the object, gravity begins to pull an object towards its own centre of mass until the object collapses into a sphere.
Mass is also the prime attribute by which planets are distinguished from stars. The upper mass limit for planethood is roughly 13 times Jupiter's mass for objects with solar-type isotopic abundance , beyond which it achieves conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.
Other than the Sun, no objects of such mass exist in the Solar System; but there are exoplanets of this size. The Jupiter-mass limit is not universally agreed upon and the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia includes objects up to 60 Jupiter masses,  and the Exoplanet Data Explorer up to 24 Jupiter masses.
Its mass is roughly half that of the planet Mercury. Every planet began its existence in an entirely fluid state; in early formation, the denser, heavier materials sank to the centre, leaving the lighter materials near the surface.
Each therefore has a differentiated interior consisting of a dense planetary core surrounded by a mantle that either is or was a fluid.
The terrestrial planets are sealed within hard crusts ,  but in the giant planets the mantle simply blends into the upper cloud layers.
The terrestrial planets have cores of elements such as iron and nickel , and mantles of silicates.
Jupiter and Saturn are believed to have cores of rock and metal surrounded by mantles of metallic hydrogen. All of the Solar System planets except Mercury  have substantial atmospheres because their gravity is strong enough to keep gases close to the surface.
The larger giant planets are massive enough to keep large amounts of the light gases hydrogen and helium , whereas the smaller planets lose these gases into space.
Planetary atmospheres are affected by the varying insolation or internal energy, leading to the formation of dynamic weather systems such as hurricanes , on Earth , planet-wide dust storms on Mars , a greater-than-Earth-sized anticyclone on Jupiter called the Great Red Spot , and holes in the atmosphere on Neptune.
Hot Jupiters, due to their extreme proximities to their host stars, have been shown to be losing their atmospheres into space due to stellar radiation, much like the tails of comets.
One important characteristic of the planets is their intrinsic magnetic moments , which in turn give rise to magnetospheres. The presence of a magnetic field indicates that the planet is still geologically alive.
In other words, magnetized planets have flows of electrically conducting material in their interiors, which generate their magnetic fields. These fields significantly change the interaction of the planet and solar wind.
A magnetized planet creates a cavity in the solar wind around itself called the magnetosphere, which the wind cannot penetrate. The magnetosphere can be much larger than the planet itself.
In contrast, non-magnetized planets have only small magnetospheres induced by interaction of the ionosphere with the solar wind, which cannot effectively protect the planet.
Of the eight planets in the Solar System, only Venus and Mars lack such a magnetic field. Of the magnetized planets the magnetic field of Mercury is the weakest, and is barely able to deflect the solar wind.
Ganymede's magnetic field is several times larger, and Jupiter's is the strongest in the Solar System so strong in fact that it poses a serious health risk to future manned missions to its moons.
The magnetic fields of the other giant planets are roughly similar in strength to that of Earth, but their magnetic moments are significantly larger.
The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are strongly tilted relative the rotational axis and displaced from the centre of the planet.
In , a team of astronomers in Hawaii observed an extrasolar planet around the star HD , which appeared to be creating a sunspot on the surface of its parent star.
Several planets or dwarf planets in the Solar System such as Neptune and Pluto have orbital periods that are in resonance with each other or with smaller bodies this is also common in satellite systems.
All except Mercury and Venus have natural satellites , often called "moons". Earth has one, Mars has two, and the giant planets have numerous moons in complex planetary-type systems.
Many moons of the giant planets have features similar to those on the terrestrial planets and dwarf planets, and some have been studied as possible abodes of life especially Europa.
The four giant planets are also orbited by planetary rings of varying size and complexity. The rings are composed primarily of dust or particulate matter, but can host tiny ' moonlets ' whose gravity shapes and maintains their structure.
Although the origins of planetary rings is not precisely known, they are believed to be the result of natural satellites that fell below their parent planet's Roche limit and were torn apart by tidal forces.
No secondary characteristics have been observed around extrasolar planets. The sub-brown dwarf Cha , which has been described as a rogue planet , is believed to be orbited by a tiny protoplanetary disc  and the sub-brown dwarf OTS 44 was shown to be surrounded by a substantial protoplanetary disk of at least 10 Earth masses.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical object. For planets in astrology, see Planets in astrology.
For other uses, see Planet disambiguation. Class of astronomical body directly orbiting a star or stellar remnant.
Further information: History of astronomy , Definition of planet , and Timeline of Solar System astronomy. Main article: Babylonian astronomy.
See also: Greek astronomy. Main articles: Indian astronomy and Hindu cosmology. Main articles: Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and Cosmology in medieval Islam.
See also: Heliocentrism. Main article: IAU definition of planet. See also: List of former planets. See also: Weekday names and Naked-eye planet. Main article: Nebular hypothesis.
Supernova remnant ejecta producing planet-forming material. Solar System — sizes but not distances are to scale. The Sun and the eight planets of the Solar System.
The inner planets , Mercury , Venus , Earth , and Mars. Main article: Solar System. See also: List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System.
Main article: Exoplanet. Main article: Dwarf planet. Main article: Rogue planet. See also: Five-planet Nice model. Main article: Sub-brown dwarf.
Main article: Satellite planet. Main articles: Orbit and Orbital elements. Main article: Axial tilt. Main article: Clearing the neighbourhood.
Main article: Planetary mass. Main article: Planetary differentiation. Main articles: Atmosphere and Extraterrestrial atmospheres.
See also: Extraterrestrial skies. Main article: Magnetosphere. Main articles: Natural satellite and Planetary ring. Astronomy portal Solar System portal Space portal.
The official definition applies only to the Solar System, whereas the definition applies to planets around other stars. The extrasolar planet issue was deemed too complex to resolve at the IAU conference.
The term "satellite" had already begun to be used to distinguish such bodies from those around which they orbited "primary planets".
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Pluto will always be the ninth planet to us! Haumea lives in the Kuiper belt and is about the same size as Pluto. It spins very fast, which distorts its shape, making it look like a football.
Also in the Kuiper belt, Makemake is the second brightest object in the belt, behind Pluto. Makemake and Eris are the reason Pluto is no longer a planet.
Eris is the same size as Pluto, but three times further from the Sun! The Sun is the heart of our solar system and its gravity is what keeps every planet and particle in orbit.
This yellow dwarf star is just one of billions like it across the Milky Way galaxy. The only place beyond Earth that humans have explored, the Moon is the largest and brightest object in our sky — responsible for the tides and keeping Earth stable on its axis.
Comets are snowballs made up of frozen gas, rock, and dust that orbit the Sun. As they get closer to the Sun, they heat up and leave a trail of glowing dust and gases.
Asteroids are small, rocky, debris left over from the formation of our solar system around 4. There are currently over , known asteroids.
Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, the asteroid belt contains an estimated 1. The Nine Planets We still love you, Pluto! An overview of the history, mythology and current scientific knowledge of the planets, moons and other objects in our solar system.
Mercury The smallest and fastest planet, Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and whips around it every 88 Earth days. Venus Spinning in the opposite direction to most planets, Venus is the hottest planet, and one of the brightest objects in the sky.
Earth The place we call home, Earth is the third rock from the sun and the only planet with known life on it — and lots of it too!
Jupiter Jupiter is a massive planet, twice the size of all other planets combined and has a centuries-old storm that is bigger than Earth.Some astronomers consider the scattered disc to be merely another region of the Kuiper belt and describe scattered disc objects as "scattered Kuiper belt objects". Mars shares similarities with Earth: It is rocky, has mountains, valleys Game Kostenlos Spielen canyons, and storm systems ranging from localized tornado-like dust devils to planet-engulfing dust storms. Western Unios Pluto will always be the ninth planet to us! Artist's rendition of our solar system. The rotation of a planet can be induced by several factors during Free Mobile Games No Download Or Installation.