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User Polls Favorito Filmo He claimed they were "no good" because they did not portray "an innocent person but a sinister man who was going up those stairs".
Filming the murder of Arbogast proved problematic owing to the overhead camera angle necessary to hide the film's twist. A camera track constructed on pulleys alongside the stairway together with a chairlike device had to be constructed and thoroughly tested over a period of weeks.
Alfred Hitchcock's cameo is a signature occurrence in most of his films. In Psycho , he can be seen through a window—wearing a Stetson hat —standing outside Marion Crane's office.
Others have suggested that he chose this early appearance in the film in order to avoid distracting the audience.
The murder of Leigh's character in the shower is the film's pivotal scene and one of the best-known in all of cinema. As such, it spawned numerous myths and legends.
It was shot from December 17—23, , after Leigh had twice postponed the filming, firstly for a cold and then her period.
The combination of the close shots with their short duration makes the sequence feel more subjective than it would have been if the images were presented alone or in a wider angle, an example of the technique Hitchcock described as "transferring the menace from the screen into the mind of the audience".
To capture the straight-on shot of the shower head, the camera had to be equipped with a long lens. The inner holes on the shower head were blocked and the camera placed a sufficient distance away so that the water, while appearing to be aimed directly at the lens, actually went around and past it.
The soundtrack of screeching violins, violas, and cellos was an original all-strings piece by composer Bernard Herrmann titled " The Murder ".
Hitchcock originally intended to have no music for the sequence and all motel scenes ,  but Herrmann insisted he try his composition. Afterward, Hitchcock agreed it vastly intensified the scene, and nearly doubled Herrmann's salary.
There are varying accounts whether Leigh was in the shower the entire time or a body double was used for some parts of the murder sequence and its aftermath.
In an interview with Roger Ebert and in the book Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho , Leigh stated she was in the scene the entire time and Hitchcock used a stand-in only for the sequence in which Norman wraps Marion's body in a shower curtain and places it in the trunk of her car.
Riggs says that this is when she and Leigh became acquainted. As you know, you could not take the camera and just show a nude woman, it had to be done impressionistically.
So, it was done with little pieces of film, the head, the feet, the hand, etc. In that scene there were 78 pieces of film in about 45 seconds.
A popular myth emerged that, in order for Leigh's scream in the shower to sound realistic, ice-cold water was used. Leigh denied this on numerous occasions, saying the crew was accommodating, supplying hot water throughout the week-long shoot.
Another myth concerns Saul Bass , the graphic designer who created many of the title sequences of Hitchcock's films and storyboarded some of Psycho ' s scenes, claiming he had directed the shower scene.
This was refuted by several figures associated with the film, including Leigh, who stated: "absolutely not! I have emphatically said this in any interview I've ever given.
I've said it to his face in front of other people I was in that shower for seven days, and, believe me, Alfred Hitchcock was right next to his camera for every one of those seventy-odd shots.
Green , the assistant director, also refutes Bass' claim: "There is not a shot in that movie that I didn't roll the camera for.
And I can tell you I never rolled the camera for Mr. Commentators such as Stephen Rebello and Bill Krohn have argued in favor of Bass' contribution to the scene in his capacity as visual consultant and storyboard artist.
Krohn's analysis of the production of Psycho in his book Hitchcock at Work , while refuting Bass' claims for directing the scene, notes that these storyboards did introduce key aspects of the final scene—most notably, the fact that the killer appears as a silhouette, and details such as the close-ups of the slashing knife, Leigh's desperate outstretched arm, the shower curtain being torn off its hooks, and the transition from the hole of the drainage pipe to Marion Crane's dead eyes.
Krohn notes that this final transition is highly reminiscent of the iris titles that Bass created for Vertigo. In order to create an ideal montage for the greatest emotional impact on the audience, Hitchcock shot a lot of footage of this scene which he trimmed down in the editing room.
He even brought a Moviola on the set to gauge the footage required. The final sequence, which his editor George Tomasini worked on with Hitchcock's advice, however did not go far beyond the basic structural elements set up by Bass' storyboards.
According to Donald Spoto in The Dark Side of Genius , Hitchcock's wife, Alma Reville , spotted a blooper in one of the last screenings of Psycho before its official release: after Marion was supposedly dead, one could see her blink.
According to Patricia Hitchcock , talking in Laurent Bouzereau 's "making of" documentary, Alma spotted that Leigh's character appeared to take a breath.
In either case, the postmortem activity was edited out and was never seen by audiences. It is often claimed that, despite its graphic nature, the shower scene never once shows a knife puncturing flesh.
Marion had decided to go back to Phoenix, come clean, and take the consequence, so when she stepped into the bathtub it was as if she were stepping into the baptismal waters.
The spray beating down on her was purifying the corruption from her mind, purging the evil from her soul. She was like a virgin again, tranquil, at peace.
Film theorist Robin Wood also discusses how the shower washes "away her guilt". He comments upon the " alienation effect " of killing off the "apparent center of the film" with which spectators had identified.
The scene was the subject of Alexandre O. Hitchcock insisted that Bernard Herrmann write the score for Psycho despite the composer's refusal to accept a reduced fee for the film's lower budget.
Herrmann used the lowered music budget to his advantage by writing for a string orchestra rather than a full symphonic ensemble,  contrary to Hitchcock's request for a jazz score.
Film composer Fred Steiner , in an analysis of the score to Psycho , points out that string instruments gave Herrmann access to a wider range in tone, dynamics, and instrumental special effects than any other single instrumental group would have.
The main title music, a tense, hurtling piece, sets the tone of impending violence, and returns three times on the soundtrack.
There were rumors that Herrmann had used electronic means, including amplified bird screeches to achieve the shocking effect of the music in the shower scene.
The effect was achieved, however, only with violins in a "screeching, stabbing sound-motion of extraordinary viciousness. Herrmann biographer Steven C.
Smith writes that the music for the shower scene is "probably the most famous and most imitated cue in film music,"  but Hitchcock was originally opposed to having music in this scene.
Herrmann reminded Hitchcock of his instructions not to score this scene, to which Hitchcock replied, "Improper suggestion, my boy, improper suggestion.
The second one, over the score for Torn Curtain , resulted in the end of their professional collaboration. To honor the fiftieth anniversary of Psycho , in July , the San Francisco Symphony  obtained a print of the film with the soundtrack removed, and projected it on a large screen in Davies Symphony Hall while the orchestra performed the score live.
This was previously mounted by the Seattle Symphony in October as well, performing at the Benaroya Hall for two consecutive evenings.
Psycho is a prime example of the type of film that appeared in the United States during the s after the erosion of the Production Code.
It was unprecedented in its depiction of sexuality and violence, right from the opening scene in which Sam and Marion are shown as lovers sharing the same bed, with Marion in a bra.
Another controversial issue was the gender bending element. Perkins, who was allegedly a homosexual ,  and Hitchcock, who previously made Rope , were both experienced in the film's transgressive subject matter.
The viewer is unaware of the Bates' gender bending, until, at the end of the movie, it is revealed that Bates crossdresses as his mother during the attempted murder of Lila.
At the station, Sam asks why Bates was dressed that way. The police officer, ignorant of Bates' split personality, bluntly utters that Bates is a transvestite.
The psychiatrist corrects him and says, "Not exactly". He explains that Bates believes that he is his own mother when he dresses in her clothes.
According to the book Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho , the censors in charge of enforcing the Production Code wrangled with Hitchcock because some of them insisted they could see one of Leigh's breasts.
Hitchcock held onto the print for several days, left it untouched, and resubmitted it for approval.
Each of the censors reversed their positions: those who had previously seen the breast now did not, and those who had not, now did. They passed the film after the director removed one shot that showed the buttocks of Leigh's stand-in.
Because board members did not show up for the re-shoot, the opening stayed. Another cause of concern for the censors was that Marion was shown flushing a toilet, with its contents torn-up note paper fully visible.
No flushing toilet had appeared in mainstream film and television in the United States at that time. Internationally, Hitchcock was forced to make minor changes to the film, mostly to the shower scene.
In Britain, the BBFC requested cuts to stabbing sounds and visible nude shots, and in New Zealand the shot of Norman washing blood from his hands was objected to.
In Singapore, though the shower scene was left untouched, the murder of Arbogast, and a shot of Norman's mother's corpse were removed. The most controversial move was Hitchcock's "no late admission" policy for the film, which was unusual for the time.
It was not entirely original as Clouzot had done the same in France for Diabolique. However, after the first day, the owners enjoyed long lines of people waiting to see the film.
Hitchcock did most of the promotion on his own, forbidding Leigh and Perkins to make the usual television, radio, and print interviews for fear of them revealing the plot.
The film's original trailer features a jovial Hitchcock taking the viewer on a tour of the set, and almost giving away plot details before stopping himself.
It is "tracked" with Herrmann's Psycho theme, but also jovial music from Hitchcock's comedy The Trouble with Harry ; most of Hitchcock's dialogue is post-synchronized.
The trailer was made after completion of the film, and because Janet Leigh was no longer available for filming, Hitchcock had Vera Miles don a blonde wig and scream loudly as he pulled the shower curtain back in the bathroom sequence of the preview.
Because the title Psycho instantly covers most of the screen, the switch went unnoticed by audiences for years. However, a freeze-frame analysis clearly reveals that it is Miles and not Leigh in the shower during the trailer.
Percy , was murdered. As her parents slept mere feet away, she was stabbed a dozen times with a double-edged knife.
In light of the murder, CBS agreed to postpone the broadcast. As a result of the Apollo pad fire of January 27, , the network washed its hands of Psycho.
Shortly afterward Paramount included the film in its first syndicated package of post movies, "Portfolio I".
Following another successful theatrical reissue in , the film finally made its way to general television airing in one of Universal's syndicated programming packages for local stations in Psycho was aired for 20 years in this format, then leased to cable for two years before returning to syndication as part of the "List of a Lifetime" package.
Initial reviews of the film were thoroughly mixed. While the film did not conclude satisfactorily for the critic, he commended the cast's performances as "fair".
Lejeune was so offended that she not only walked out before the end but permanently resigned her post as film critic for The Observer.
Positive reviews stated, "Anthony Perkins' performance is the best of his career Janet Leigh has never been better", "played out beautifully", and "first American movie since Touch of Evil to stand in the same creative rank as the great European films.
The public loved the film, with lines stretching outside of theaters as people had to wait for the next showing. This, along with box office numbers, led to a reconsideration of the film by critics, and it eventually received a large amount of praise.
In the United Kingdom, the film shattered attendance records at the London Plaza Cinema , but nearly all British critics gave it poor reviews, questioning Hitchcock's taste and judgment.
Reasons cited for this were the critics' late screenings, forcing them to rush their reviews, their dislike of the gimmicky promotion, and Hitchcock's expatriate status.
TIME switched its opinion from "Hitchcock bears down too heavily in this one" to "superlative" and "masterly", and Bosley Crowther put it on his Top Ten list of The Catholic Legion of Decency gave the film a B rating, meaning "morally objectionable in part".
Psycho was criticized for making other filmmakers more willing to show gore; three years later, Blood Feast , considered to be the first " splatter film ", was released.
Inspired by Psycho , Hammer Film Productions launched a series of mystery thrillers including The Nanny  starring Bette Davis and William Castle 's Homicidal was followed by a slew of more than thirteen other splatter films.
The site's critical consensus states, "Infamous for its shower scene, but immortal for its contribution to the horror genre. Because Psycho was filmed with tact, grace, and art, Hitchcock didn't just create modern horror, he validated it.
In Psycho , Hitchcock subverts the romantic elements that are seen in most of his work. The film is instead ironic as it presents "clarity and fulfillment" of romance.
The past is central to the film; the main characters "struggle to understand and resolve destructive personal histories" and ultimately fail. The myth does not sustain with Marion, who dies hopelessly in her room at the Bates Motel.
The room is wallpapered with floral print like Persephone's flowers, but they are only "reflected in mirrors, as images of images—twice removed from reality".
In the scene of Marion's death, Brill describes the transition from the bathroom drain to Marion's lifeless eye, "Like the eye of the amorphous sea creature at the end of Fellini's La Dolce Vita , it marks the birth of death, an emblem of final hopelessness and corruption.
Marion is deprived of "the humble treasures of love, marriage, home and family", which Hitchcock considers elements of human happiness. There exists among Psycho ' s secondary characters a lack of "familial warmth and stability", which demonstrates the unlikelihood of domestic fantasies.
The film contains ironic jokes about domesticity, such as when Sam writes a letter to Marion, agreeing to marry her, only after the audience sees her buried in the swamp.
Sam and Marion's sister Lila, in investigating Marion's disappearance, develop an "increasingly connubial" relationship, a development that Marion is denied.
He has "an infantile and divided personality" and lives in a mansion whose past occupies the present. Norman displays stuffed birds that are "frozen in time" and keeps childhood toys and stuffed animals in his room.
He is hostile toward suggestions to move from the past, such as with Marion's suggestion to put his mother "someplace" and as a result kills Marion to preserve his past.
Brill explains, " 'Someplace' for Norman is where his delusions of love, home, and family are declared invalid and exposed.
Light and darkness feature prominently in Psycho. The first shot after the intertitle is the sunny landscape of Phoenix before the camera enters a dark hotel room where Sam and Marion appear as bright figures.
Marion is almost immediately cast in darkness; she is preceded by her shadow as she reenters the office to steal money and as she enters her bedroom.
When she flees Phoenix, darkness descends on her drive. The following sunny morning is punctured by a watchful police officer with black sunglasses, and she finally arrives at the Bates Motel in near darkness.
Examples of brightness include the opening window shades in Sam's and Marion's hotel room, vehicle headlights at night, the neon sign at the Bates Motel, "the glaring white" of the bathroom tiles where Marion dies, and the fruit cellar's exposed light bulb shining on the corpse of Norman's mother.
Such bright lights typically characterize danger and violence in Hitchcock's films. The film often features shadows, mirrors, windows, and, less so, water.
The shadows are present from the first scene where the blinds make bars on Marion and Sam as they peer out of the window.
The stuffed birds' shadows loom over Marion as she eats, and Norman's mother is seen in only shadows until the end. More subtly, backlighting turns the rakes in the hardware store into talons above Lila's head.
Mirrors reflect Marion as she packs, her eyes as she checks the rear-view mirror, her face in the policeman's sunglasses, and her hands as she counts out the money in the car dealership's bathroom.
A motel window serves as a mirror by reflecting Marion and Norman together. Hitchcock shoots through Marion's windshield and the telephone booth, when Arbogast phones Sam and Lila.
The heavy downpour can be seen as a foreshadowing of the shower, and its cessation can be seen as a symbol of Marion making up her mind to return to Phoenix.
There are a number of references to birds. Marion's last name is Crane and she is from Phoenix. Norman comments that Marion eats like a bird.
The motel room has pictures of birds on the wall. Brigitte Peucker also suggests that Norman's hobby of stuffing birds literalizes the British slang expression for sex, "stuffing birds", bird being British slang for a desirable woman.
Psycho has been called "the first psychoanalytical thriller. In , the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.
Leigh asserted, "no other murder mystery in the history of the movies has inspired such merchandising. In , it was adapted scene-for-scene into three comic books by the Innovative Corporation.
Psycho has appeared on a number of lists by websites, television channels, and magazines. An ex-soldier, a teen and a cop collide in New Orleans as they hunt for the source Seeking fulfillment, a young drifter forgoes isolation to embark on a year-long murder Psycho Stream and Watch Online.
TMDb Score. R 1 hr 49 min Jun 16th, Horror , Drama , Thriller. Alfred Hitchcock. Anthony Perkins as Norman Bates. Vera Miles as Lila Crane.
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