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By April , Trevithick had identified candidate researchers for the project and invited them to Google's California campus. None of the researchers knew each other well; it became a day-long guessing game for each to decipher why they had been invited.
The researchers then had several months to brainstorm experiments, which they collectively whittled down to three priorities. From the beginning, the researchers agreed to rigorously check their work and publish all their results—even when the work came up empty.
The first major experiment aimed to address a key claim within the cold fusion community: If enough deuterium atoms are electrically crammed into a piece of palladium—at least seven for every eight palladium atoms—the device gives off excess heat.
But as the researchers soon realized, packing palladium full of deuterium is extremely difficult, and so is measuring it.
In the past, researchers had measured palladium's deuterium content by tracking changes in its electrical resistance. But when the Google team tried the technique, they noticed errors.
So they came up with a new measurement technique : shining x-rays through the palladium to directly see how much the loaded metal had swelled.
The team's second agenda tested whether heating hydrogen with various powdered metals triggers fusion, yielding heat and fusion byproducts.
Italian cold-fusion proponents have made the claim since the s, including Andrea Rossi, the colorful inventor of the E-Cat , a device that Rossi claims is a LENR reactor.
But when researchers tried to replicate Rossi's claims, they realized their tools could easily give inaccurate results at the required temperatures and pressures.
So Berlinguette and his students built four of the world's most precise calorimeters , devices that measure the heat given off by reactions taking place within them.
They then ran separate trials of the experiments—and none of them clearly yielded excess heat. The team will detail their tests in a forthcoming arXiv preprint, Trevithick says in an email.
The third experiment followed up on results reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in the s: that an electrified palladium wire surrounded by a cloud of electrically charged deuterium made certain fusion byproducts , specifically an excess of a heavy, radioactive sibling of hydrogen called tritium.
When Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory physicist Thomas Schenkel and his team tested the claim, they didn't find a spike of excess tritium.
But while fusion reactions are still extremely rare at low energies, they found that fusion occurred a hundred to times more frequently in their experiment than they expected.
Schenkel's team describes the early results in a preprint posted to the arXiv. Trevithick stresses that cold fusion represents just one sliver of Google's energy research, which includes working with the traditional fusion company TAE Technologies.
Regardless of Google's future investments, the researchers it has supported say they're interested in continuing the work on its basic scientific merits.
And if they or others eventually make new, disruptive discoveries in science and engineering by pursuing less conventional avenues, Bhattacharjee would welcome the effort.
Jones, however, was measuring neutron flux, which was not of commercial interest. In mid-March , both research teams were ready to publish their findings, and Fleischmann and Jones had agreed to meet at an airport on 24 March to send their papers to Nature via FedEx.
Fleischmann and Pons' announcement drew wide media attention. Its discovery 30 years earlier had also been unexpected, though it was quickly replicated and explained within the existing physics framework.
The announcement of a new purported clean source of energy came at a crucial time: adults still remembered the oil crisis and the problems caused by oil dependence, anthropogenic global warming was starting to become notorious, the anti-nuclear movement was labeling nuclear power plants as dangerous and getting them closed, people had in mind the consequences of strip mining , acid rain , the greenhouse effect and the Exxon Valdez oil spill , which happened the day after the announcement.
Peterson , Fleischmann and Pons, backed by the solidity of their scientific credentials, repeatedly assured the journalists that cold fusion would solve environmental problems, and would provide a limitless inexhaustible source of clean energy, using only seawater as fuel.
Although the experimental protocol had not been published, physicists in several countries attempted, and failed, to replicate the excess heat phenomenon.
The first paper submitted to Nature reproducing excess heat, although it passed peer review, was rejected because most similar experiments were negative and there were no theories that could explain a positive result; [notes 1]  this paper was later accepted for publication by the journal Fusion Technology.
Nathan Lewis , professor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technology , led one of the most ambitious validation efforts, trying many variations on the experiment without success,  while CERN physicist Douglas R.
Morrison said that "essentially all" attempts in Western Europe had failed. Nevertheless, Fleischmann and Pons and a number of other researchers who found positive results remained convinced of their findings.
On 30 April cold fusion was declared dead by the New York Times. The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day.
On 1 May the American Physical Society held a session on cold fusion in Baltimore, including many reports of experiments that failed to produce evidence of cold fusion.
At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelski , abstaining.
Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of " the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann, " which was met with a standing ovation.
Morrison , a physicist representing CERN , was the first to call the episode an example of pathological science. On 4 May, due to all this new criticism, the meetings with various representatives from Washington were cancelled.
In July and November , Nature published papers critical of cold fusion claims. The United States Department of Energy organized a special panel to review cold fusion theory and research.
Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.
The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system".
In March Michael H. Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utah , and nine co-authors reported negative results. The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics.
On 30 June the National Cold Fusion Institute closed after it ran out of funds;  it found no excess heat, and its reports of tritium production were met with indifference.
Mostly in the s, several books were published that were critical of cold fusion research methods and the conduct of cold fusion researchers.
A review by a cold fusion proponent had calculated "about scientists" were still conducting research. These small but committed groups of cold fusion researchers have continued to conduct experiments using Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis setups in spite of the rejection by the mainstream community.
A group of scientists at well-known research labs e. Their reported conclusion: no cold fusion. Cold fusion research continues today [ when?
The researchers who continue acknowledge that the flaws in the original announcement are the main cause of the subject's marginalization, and they complain of a chronic lack of funding  and no possibilities of getting their work published in the highest impact journals.
A pariah field, cast out by the scientific establishment. Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all.
Cold fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires.
On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism. Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.
In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here.
In August , the U. Hagelstein ,  : 3 and the publication of many new papers, including the Italian ENEA and other researchers in the International Cold Fusion Conference,  and a two-volume book by U.
The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.
While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in , the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review.
The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were: 1 material science aspects of deuterated metals using modern characterization techniques, and 2 the study of particles reportedly emitted from deuterated foils using state-of-the-art apparatus and methods.
The reviewers believed that this field would benefit from the peer-review processes associated with proposal submission to agencies and paper submission to archival journals.
Cold fusion researchers placed a "rosier spin"  on the report, noting that they were finally being treated like normal scientists, and that the report had increased interest in the field and caused "a huge upswing in interest in funding cold fusion research.
The grant was intended to support research into the interactions of hydrogen with palladium, nickel or platinum under extreme conditions.
Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the Naval Research Laboratory for 40 years, was named director.
He claims that the new experiment has already seen "neutron emissions at similar levels to the observation". Since the Fleischmann and Pons announcement, the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development ENEA has funded Franco Scaramuzzi's research into whether excess heat can be measured from metals loaded with deuterium gas.
In —, the ENEA started a research program which claimed to have found excess power of up to percent, and in , ENEA hosted the 15th cold fusion conference.
We can't find any reason to propose more money for the coming year or for the future. In the s India stopped its research in cold fusion at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre because of the lack of consensus among mainstream scientists and the US denunciation of the research.
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, are allowed to leave the cell.
In closed cell experiments, the products are captured, for example by catalytically recombining the products in a separate part of the experimental system.
These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically. There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned off.
The most basic setup of a cold fusion cell consists of two electrodes submerged in a solution containing palladium and heavy water.
The electrodes are then connected to a power source to transmit electricity from one electrode to the other through the solution.
The Fleischmann and Pons early findings regarding helium, neutron radiation and tritium were never replicated satisfactorily, and its levels were too low for the claimed heat production and inconsistent with each other.
An excess heat observation is based on an energy balance. Various sources of energy input and output are continuously measured.
Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error.
In experiments such as those run by Fleischmann and Pons, an electrolysis cell operating steadily at one temperature transitions to operating at a higher temperature with no increase in applied current.
Unable to produce excess heat or neutrons, and with positive experiments being plagued by errors and giving disparate results, most researchers declared that heat production was not a real effect and ceased working on the experiments.
Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ballistic trajectories.
In support of their claim that nuclear reactions took place in their electrolytic cells, Fleischmann and Pons reported a neutron flux of 4, neutrons per second, as well as detection of tritium.
The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, the production of 10 12 neutrons per second, levels that would have been fatal to the researchers.
Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported as detected by several researchers, like Tadahiko Mizuno or George Miley.
The report presented to the United States Department of Energy DOE in indicated that deuterium-loaded foils could be used to detect fusion reaction products and, although the reviewers found the evidence presented to them as inconclusive, they indicated that those experiments did not use state-of-the-art techniques.
In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.
In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air.
One of the main criticisms of cold fusion was that deuteron-deuteron fusion into helium was expected to result in the production of gamma rays —which were not observed and were not observed in subsequent cold fusion experiments.
Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion. This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes.
However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment.
Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission,  but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories.
Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: either pointing out the theoretical implausibility that fusion reactions have occurred in electrolysis setups or criticizing the excess heat measurements as being spurious, erroneous, or due to poor methodology or controls.
There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.
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Cold Fuson VideoWorst Phone Failures in History A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time. Oops, something went wrong. Getting Started. Read Caption. Bibcode : PhLA. The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown Kartenspiele.De, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time.
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